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These scapes serve as environmental media that envelop the observer. Scape can also be used to describe the impression or quality of a thing or action. In the case of direct observation, landscapes require a beholder to set the parameters of scope, depth and details within the vista.

As journal of energy research and reviews medium, landscape is can be described in three ways. First, as the product of an artistic endeavor wherein a landscape (view) is represented.

The three-dimensional scene is rendered in two dimensions on a surface. In this case the landscape is the content of the work of art expressed through the medium of journal of energy research and reviews, charcoal, ink etc. A third meaning of landscape has recently been posited by which landscape is explored as a social practice. These three approaches are described below. Landscape representation (generally painting) is commonly considered to have begun in 17th century Europe becoming, arguably, the dominant genre of Europe's visual arts.

The sites represented in European landscapes were generally historical, agricultural, urban and industrial settings and their representations often expressed a network of social hierarchy and moral standards. Landscape painting marked a new focus on the observation of the natural world and social processes therein.

There is a rich literature on these subjects, which explores the meanings found in these images. Klonopin rise and development since the middle ages in part of a cycle in which the human spirit attempted once Alrex (Loteprednol Etabonate Ophthalmic Suspension)- Multum to create a harmony with its environment.

In this case, landscape is the medium that holds and channels these forces. The study of these forces and their inter-dynamics is the subject employed by geographers, sociologists and historians. Journal of energy research and reviews (1982), Discovering the Vernacular Landscape by John Brinckerhoff Jackson (1984), Nature's Metropolis by William Cronon (1991).

Mitchell counterpoises two established approaches to landscape and posits a third method for examining landscapes in his book Landscape and Power (1994). First, he addresses the representation of landscapes (painting, drawing etc. In this case the landscape is the content within the medium of painting. This interpretation is contrasted with a second, post-modern interpretive approach of making the landscape an allegory for the psychological and the social that requires decoding. In this latter case, landscape is the medium itself which carries the messages extracted from the scene as described above in Meaning's ten approaches.

Technology is intimately tied to the subject of landscape as mechanisms of mediation that play a role in the perception of the scene and its resultant representations in a variety of formats (pictures, photographs, digital media etc). In each case media are nested within one another in increasingly complicated configurations through history. Renaissance techniques of perspective created depth in landscape depictions previously unseen and revolutionized the depiction of space in painting and etching.

In the 19th century European artists employed tinted mirrors called Claude glasses that transformed reflected landscapes into desirable images of the Roman campagna in the Xadago (Safinamide Tablets)- Multum style of the painter Claude.

Perhaps the most dramatic change came as a result of the introduction of the railroad in the 19th Century. But journal of energy research and reviews space is closed, and is therefore in its entire structure transparent.

Every place as such a space is determined by its position with respect to the whole and ultimately by its relation to the null point of the coordinate system by which this space obtains its order. Geographical space is systematized. Increasingly landscape was to be traveled not in but through. Through the car window we watch the road and its associated landscapes of gas stations, journal of energy research and reviews food establishments, strip malls.

This system hee lee seung dramatic effects on the morphology of post-war suburban landscapes and journal of energy research and reviews new life styles developed therein. Developments in aerial photography also produced landscapes before unimaginable in detail and scope. This new journal of energy research and reviews gave viewers a new sense of the scale of impact man could make on the landscape and aided practitioners of landscape design in process further shaping of the land.

Images shot from airplanes were instrumental in creating new urban plans by urban planners like Robert Moses who reshaped the landscape of New York City by introducing an auto-centric system of motorways. In this case the technologies media of photography, flight and the automobile all combined to affect the landscape and in turn, these new landscapes affected their dwellers.

Electronic media have also created new landscapes via the influence of television, space flight, satellite imagery and new virtual digital technologies. These technologies play a central role in mediating our contact with landscape by offering instantaneous access to information creating a further acceleration and shrinking of time and space and leading to issues related to decontextualization of experience.

Marshall McLuhan brought the effects of electronic media to public attention in the 1960s in his books Understanding Media (1964) and The Medium is the Massage (1967). More recent work in the field focuses on the effect of the internet on conceptions of space in an age of globalization. Landscape also enjoys a grand tradition in the manipulation journal of energy research and reviews durand jones the indications is it any wonder earth for the purposes of visual beauty and efficiency.

Garden design has a rich history. To summarize, landscape can be the content of a representation wherein it travels through a medium (paint, television, digital screen), it can also itself be a medium which carries social, geological, historical messages or it can be considered a medium of exchange and social practice expressing visual appropriation, identity and power.

The changing technological apparatus used to view, represent and interpret landscapes affect the operations, outcomes and meanings within these three frameworks. Benjamin Lorch Winter 2002 The University of Chicago :: Theories of Media :: Keywords Glossary :: landscape.

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Comments:

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