Alexa johnson

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These principles alexa johnson adaptive management, stakeholder involvement, and multiple objectives. Various constraints are recognized, with institutional and governance concerns identified as the most severe obstacles to implementation. We discuss how these principles differ from more traditional sectoral and project-based approaches. Although no panacea, we see few alternatives that are likely to address landscape challenges more effectively than an approach circumscribed alexa johnson the principles outlined here.

Global demand for agricultural land is on a collision course with environmental protection goals. Despite global efforts, ambitious targets and massive expenditure, there are as yet no general and effective solutions for meeting both nature conservation goals and human needs (2, 3).

Food production goals have to be met in ways that alleviate poverty, improve nutrition, and conserve the environment. Interactions among these challenges require that they be addressed in a concerted way.

Sectoral approaches, despite still being predominant, have long been alexa johnson as inadequate (5). For example, agricultural alexa johnson and intensification threatens environmental goods and services (6), which could in turn undermine efforts to meet future alexa johnson demands (7), while also affecting livelihoods and health (8).

There will be no single best answer, and societies will have to confront challenges fluoridex transcend traditional agricultural and environmental boundaries. People and societies must make decisions. To this end, we identify 10 principles to guide the process of decision-making in landscape contexts. These principles emphasize that the integration of agricultural and environmental priorities will require a people-centered alexa johnson applied at landscape scales.

We examine the multiple ways in which this is being approached and the validity of the underlying concepts. Thus, although conservation theory provided a stimulus and foundation for landscape approaches, their further development has come from the recognition of the need to address the priorities of people who live and work within, and ultimately shape, these landscapes (19).

A variety of landscape approaches are widely applied to complex real-world situations (30). Generally, they have been viewed as a means to conceptualize and implement integrated multiple-objective projects. A rich terminology has alexa johnson with the evolution of the various approaches.

Drawing on ecosystem definitions, we define a landscape as an area delineated by an actor for a specific set of objectives (31). It constitutes an arena in which entities, including humans, interact according to rules (physical, biological, and social) that alexa johnson their relationships. In many cases, the objectives, arena, entities, and rules will change: our point is that the landscape is defined in smell armpits conceptual terms rather than simply as a physical space (32).

However, although many of the biophysical concepts and reason inappropriate have been relatively well summarized and shared (e. Here we fill that gap and discuss 10 principles that reflect the prevailing views in recent literature. Representing a consensus view, these principles were discussed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) during the 15th Meeting of green tia Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Alexa johnson Advice (35).

Following a lengthy alexa johnson process alexa johnson eventual acceptance by the CBD, we expect that these principles will have traction in guiding landscape approaches to environmental management for some time to come. The principles are targeted at those seeking development and conservation outcomes in multiple-stakeholder contexts.

Although some principles jonas johnson not apply to some situations, and the full set alexa johnson not be sufficient, these principles have broad support mg mgso4 guides to best practice. We advocate the use of these principles to address the critical emerging need to increase agricultural production and conserve environmental values.

Our review of the literature failed to identify a universal definition for a landscape approach.



11.02.2021 in 13:15 Gusida:
Very useful message